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Applied Physics and Mathematics

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ELECTRIC FLUCTUATIONS AND DEFECTS OF STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS (REVIEW)
B.I. YAKUBOVICH

The connection of electrical fluctuations with structural defects in solids is considered. There are large number of research results indicating that defects are the cause of various fluctuation phenomena in solids. The study of this issue is in principle importance, since defects are associated with the formation of several types of electrical noise, which are of fundamental importance. The connection of excess low-frequency, generation-recombination and burst noises with defects in the structure of solids is analyzed. Experimental results are considered. The possibilities of a theoretical explanation of noise due to physical mechanisms associated with structural defects are shown. Electrical fluctuations in semiconductors caused by capture and emission of charge carriers by traps formed by structural defects are comprehensively considered. Fluctuations due to this cause, in many cases, determine spectrum of electrical noise in semiconductors and semiconductor devices. A quantitative description of electrical fluctuations in semiconductors caused by traps is presented. The noise in semiconductors is considered with a fluctuating number of traps. The effect of degradation processes on noise has been taken into account. The noise is analyzed taking into account the heating of the semiconductor caused by the flow of current; it is noted that due to heating noise reduction is possible. A general approach to description of noise in semiconductors caused by traps, which can be used to analyze various types of electrical noises associated with this cause, is presented. The features of noise in semiconductors caused by defects with internal degrees of freedom and multiply charged traps are discussed. It is noted that development of ideas about electrical fluctuations in solids associated with defects is essential for a more complete description of fluctuation phenomena in solids. It is noted that studies of such fluctuations are significant for applied purposes: they help reduce noise level in electronic devices and ensure stability of their work, and also provide an opportunity to improve noise methods of nondestructive testing and diagnostics of electronic devices.
Keywords: fluctuations, noise, electrical, spectra, solids, semiconductors.


DOI: 10.25791/pfim.04.2019.827

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Pp. 03-13.

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